This report focuses on reaching zero decarbonization into time to fulfil the Paris Agreement and hold the line on rising global temperatures. Several sectors stand out as especially hard to decarbonise. Four of the most energy-intensive industries (iron and steel, chemicals and petrochemicals, cement and lime, and aluminium) and three key transport sectors (road freight, aviation, and shipping) could together account for 38% of energy and process emissions and 29% of final energy use by 2050 without major policy changes now, the report finds.
The report considers how these sectors could achieve zero emissions by 2060 and assesses the use of renewables and related technologies to achieve this. Decarbonisation options for each sector span efficiency improvements, electrification, direct heat, and fuel production using renewables, along with CO2 removal measures.